Meat and fish stocks have played a role in all traditional cuisines throughout human history, and their use as therapeutic agent dates back to the ancient Chinese. 

Homemade broth is rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and trace minerals, and contains glucosamine and chondroiton. The minerals in broth are easily absorbed by the body.

Bone broths can be considered for use in the following conditions:

Ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, decreased immune system states, malnutrition, muscle wasting, bone and joint degeneration, infectious diseases, and many more!

New England and Manhattan Style Fish Chowders 
Asian Style Beef Stew  
Coconut Curry Chicken Soup 

The Amazing Health Benefits of Bone Broth
From Body Ecology

Besides the exquisite flavor that bone broth imparts into any savory dish, it:
Is full of minerals.
Fortifies the immune system.
Enhances digestion.
Nourishes all body parts related to collagen. This means joints, tendons, ligaments, skin, mucus membranes, and bone.

Bone Broth Is Mineral Rich

Clearly, long-cooked broth made from bones will be rich in a dynamic array of minerals. Bone is, after all, highly mineralized. A well-made bone broth will give your body calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, in a form that your body understands. In order to pull these precious minerals from the bone during cooking, add an acid, like apple cider vinegar, to the water before cooking.

How the Collagen in Bone Broth Heals the Gut
Bones, marrow, skin, tendons, ligaments, and the cartilage that sometimes accompanies a bone are all made of a protein molecule called collagen. Collagen contains two very special amino acids: proline and glycine.

Collagen has been found to help heal the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the stomach and the intestines. This means that heartburn or GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) and many of the conditions associated with intestinal inflammation can be helped with bone broth.

Collagen and gelatin have been shown to benefit gastric ulcers. 
Proline is necessary for the formation of collagen.
Glycine improves digestion by increasing gastric acid secretion. 
Glutamine, also found in bone broth, is important metabolic fuel for cells in the small intestine. 

Besides collagen, cartilage contains something called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Studies have found an underlying deficiency of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in patients with Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis. Correcting a deficiency and helping to repair a compromised gut wall is another good reason to consume bone broth regularly.

Bone Broth Helps with Wrinkles, Stretch Marks, and Cellulite

Bone broth contains collagen to make your skin supple and radiant. This delicious, mineral-rich broth can be used to make soup to support smooth, strong skin and reduce cellulite.
Drinking bone broth makes skin supple. Cellulite does not arise from carrying excess fat. Haven’t you ever seen a thin person with cellulite? It is common. Most people are taught to choose skinless and boneless meat and to fear animal fats. This is why even those who are slender will not be able to shake cellulite until they change their diet.
Cellulite comes from a lack of connective tissue.
The smoothness of skin is from an abundance of connective tissue.
Collagen-rich bone broth will supply your skin with the tools that it needs to support itself.
Adding chicken feet, animal joints, and knuckles to a bone broth will increase the amount of collagen available.
Use Bone Broth with Your Next Fast
During a fast, the body receives little nourishment from food. Because of this, sometimes muscle tissue can break down.
When glycine is consumed, this limits or prevents the breakdown of protein tissue, like muscle.
Glycine is used for gluconeogenesis, which is when the liver makes sugar fuel for the body to burn in the absence of glucose.
Glycine is also necessary to detoxify the body of chemicals. This is because glycine is a precursor amino acid for glutathione, which is a major antioxidant and detoxifying agent in the body.
Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. It has been shown to improve sleep, as well as boost memory and performance. 

Broth is Beautiful
by Sally Fallon

Just as vitamins occupy the center of the stage in nutritional investigations today, so two hundred years ago gelatin held a position in the forefront of food research. Gelatin was universally acclaimed as a most nutritious foodstuff particularly by the French, who were seeking ways to feed their armies and
vast numbers of homeless in Paris and other cities. Although gelatin is not a complete protein, containing only the amino acids arginine and glycine in large amounts, it acts as a protein sparer, helping the poor stretch a few morsels of meat into a complete meal. During the siege of Paris, when vegetables and meat were scarce, a doctor named Guerard put his patients on gelatin bouillon with some added
fat and they survived in good health.

The French were the leaders in gelatin research, which continued up to the 1950s. Gelatin was found to be useful in the treatment of a long list of diseases including peptic ulcers, tuberculosis, diabetes, muscle diseases, infectious diseases, jaundice and cancer. Babies had fewer digestive problems when gelatin was added to their milk. The American researcher Francis Pottenger pointed out that as gelatin is a
hydrophilic colloid, which means that it attracts and holds liquids, it facilitates digestion by attracting digestive juices to food in the gut. Even the epicures recognized that broth-based soup did more than please the taste buds. "Soup is a healthy, light, nourishing food" said Brillant-Savarin, "good for all of humanity; it pleases the stomach, stimulates the appetite and prepares the digestion."

What America needs is healthy fast food and the only way to provide this is to put brothals in every town, independently owned brothals that provide the basic ingredient for soups and sauces and stews. And brothals will come when Americans recognize that the food industry has prostituted itself to short cuts and huge profits, shortcuts that cheat consumers of the nutrients they should get in their food and profits that skew the economy towards industrialization in farming and food processing.

Why Broth is Beautiful--"Essential" Roles for
Proline, Glycine and Gelatin
By Kaayla T. Daniel, MS CC

Gelatin’s traditional reputation as a health restorer has hinged primarily on its ability to soothe the GI tract. "Gelatin lines the mucous membrane of the intestinal tract and guards against further injurious action on the part of the ingesta," wrote Erich Cohn of the Medical Polyclinic of the University of Bonn back in 1905. Cohn recommended gelatin to people with "intestinal catarrh"--an inflammation of the mucus membrane now called irritable bowel syndrome. Interestingly, the type of gelatin used in follow-up experiments done on people with even more serious intestinal diseases was specified as a "concentrated calves foot broth."37 This form of gelatin would have been rich in cartilage and bone and presumably provide a better amino acid profile than straight collagen.

Today clinical nutritionists see more and more cases of dysbiosis--imbalances of "good" and "bad" bacteria in the intestinal tract. In that the fermentative disturbances that result are linked to allergies to grains and/or excessive carbohydrate consumption, it is fascinating to find that a researcher named C.A. Herter spoke directly to that point back in 1908:

"The use of gelatin as a foodstuff in bacterial infections of the intestinal tract has never received the attention it deserves. The physician is not infrequently confronted with a dietetic problem which consists in endeavoring to maintain nutrition under conditions where no combination of the ordinary proteins with fats and carbohydrates suffices to maintain a fair state of nutrition. The difficulty which most frequently arises is that every attempt to use carbohydrate food is followed by fermentative disturbances of an acute or subacute nature which delay recovery or even favor an existing infection to the point of threatening life. A great desideratum, therefore, is a food which, while readily undergoing absorption, shall furnish a supply of caloric energy and which at the same time shall be exempt from ordinary fermentative decomposition. Such a food exists in gelatin."

In Gelatin in Nutrition and Medicine by Dr. N.R. Gotthoffer, Director of Research for Grayslake Gelatin Company, Grayslake, Illinois, Gotthoffer states that he spent 18 years between 1927 and 1945 studying the scientific literature on gelatin.

Dr. Gotthoffer published his findings studies showing that convalescing adults who have lost weight because of operations, dysentery, cancer and other illnesses fare better if gelatin is added to their diet. 

"It is said to be retained by the most sensitive stomach and will nourish when almost nothing else will be tolerated," wrote L. E. Hogan in 1909. One reason gelatin was recommended so highly for malnourished individuals was that it diminishes the amount of complete protein needed by the body. The "sparing" effects of gelatin on protein were of particular interest to many early researchers. By "sparing protein," they meant that the body is less likely to cannibalize the protein stored in its own muscles, a common occurrence during fasting or during rapid weight loss from illness. Gelatin thus helps keep the body in what today’s nutritionists call "nitrogen balance."

​When only the muscle meats are eaten, the amino acid balance entering our blood stream is the same as that produced by extreme stress, when cortisol excess causes our muscles to be broken down to provide energy and material for repair. 

When collagen is broken down, it releases factors that promote wound healing and suppress tumor invasiveness. (Pasco, et al., 2003) Glycine itself is one of the factors promoting wound healing and tumor inhibition.

​from Ray Peat: Gelatin Stress and Longevity

Recipes adapted from Sally Fallon

Chicken Stock

1 whole free-range chicken or 2 to 3 pounds
 of bony chicken parts, such as necks,
backs, breastbones and wings*
gizzards from one chicken (optional)
2-4 chicken feet (optional)
4 quarts cold filtered water
2 tablespoons vinegar
1 large onion, coarsely chopped
2 carrots, peeled and coarsely chopped
3 celery stalks, coarsely chopped
1 bunch parsley
½ cup sea veggies such as kombu, wakame

*Note: Farm-raised, free-range chickens give the best results. Many battery-raised chickens will not produce stock that gels.

If you are using a whole chicken, cut off the wings and remove the neck, fat glands and the gizzards from the cavity. Cut chicken parts into several pieces. Place chicken or chicken pieces in a large stainless steel pot with water, or ideally in a crock pot,vinegar and all vegetables except parsley. Let stand 30 minutes to 1 hour. Bring to a boil, and remove scum that rises to the top throughout the cooking time. Reduce heat, cover and simmer very gently for 6-8 hours. This  prevents the fat from emulsifying and interfering with gelling. The longer you cook the stock, the richer and more flavorful it will be. The stock is finished when you can easily break the bones, as the collagen lives there also.

Alternatively, simmer until meat is tender, remove from bones and place bones and skin back in for remaining time. About 10 minutes before finishing the stock, add parsley. This will impart additional mineral ions to the broth. Remove whole chicken or pieces with a slotted spoon. If you are using a whole chicken, let cool and remove chicken meat from the carcass. Reserve for other uses, such as chicken salads, enchiladas, sandwiches or curries. Strain the stock into a large bowl and reserve in your refrigerator until the fat rises to the top and congeals.
Skim off this fat and reserve the stock in covered containers in your refrigerator or freezer.

Beef Stock

4 pounds beef marrow and knuckle bones
1 calves foot, cut into pieces (optional)
3 pounds meaty rib or neck bones
4 or more quarts cold filtered water
1/2 cup vinegar
3 onions, coarsely chopped
3 carrots, coarsely chopped
3 celery stalks, coarsely chopped
several sprigs of fresh thyme, tied together
1 teaspoon dried green peppercorns, crushed
1 cup soaked sea veggies such as kombu wakame
1 bunch parsley

Place the knuckle and marrow bones and optional calves foot in a very large pot with vinegar and cover with water. Let stand for one hour. Meanwhile, place the meaty bones in a roasting pan and brown at 350 degrees in the oven. When well browned, add to the pot along with the vegetables. Pour the fat out of the roasting pan, add cold water to the pan, set over a high flame and bring to a boil, stirring with a wooden spoon to loosen up coagulated juices. Add this liquid to the pot. Add additional water, if necessary, to cover the bones; but the liquid should come no higher than within one inch of the rim of the pot, as the volume expands slightly during cooking. Bring to a boil. A large amount of scum will come to the top, and it is important to remove this with a spoon. After you have skimmed, reduce heat and add the thyme and crushed peppercorns.

Simmer stock for at least 12 and as long as 72 hours. Just before finishing, add the parsley and simmer another 10 minutes. You will now have a pot of rather repulsive looking brown liquid containing globs of gelatinous and fatty material. It doesn't even smell particularly good. But don't despair. After straining you will have a delicious and nourishing clear broth that forms the basis for many other recipes.

Remove bones with tongs or a slotted spoon. Strain the stock into a large bowl. Let cool in the refrigerator and remove the congealed fat that rises to the top. Transfer to smaller containers and to the freezer for long-term storage.

Fish Stock

3 or 4 whole carcasses, including heads, of non-oily fish such as sole, turbot, rockfish
or snapper
2 tablespoons butter
2 onions, coarsely chopped
1 carrot, coarsely chopped
 sprigs fresh thyme
1 bay leaf
1 cup soaked sea veggies such as kombu wakame
1 bunch parsley
handful of pickling spices or other aromatic spices
1/2 cup dry white wine or vermouth
1/4 cup vinegar
about 3 quarts cold filtered water

Ideally, fish stock is made from the bones of sole or turbot. In Europe, you can buy these fish on the bone. The fish monger skins and filets the fish for you, giving you the filets for your evening meal and the bones for making the stock and final sauce. Unfortunately, in America sole arrives at the fish market preboned. But snapper, rock fish and other non-oily fish work equally well; and a good fish merchant will save the carcasses for you if you ask him. As he normally throws these carcasses away, he shouldn't charge you for them. Be sure to take the heads as well as the body—these are especially rich in iodine and fat-soluble vitamins. Classic cooking texts advise against using oily fish such as salmon for making broth, probably because highly unsaturated fish oils become rancid during the long cooking process-but if you are careful not to heat above 180 degrees or longer than 6 hours, it is wonderful!! Also I add a handful of pickling spices to act as antioxidants.

Melt butter in a large stainless steel pot. Add the vegetables and cook very gently, about 1/2 hour, until they are soft. Add wine and bring to a boil. Add the fish carcasses and cover with cold, filtered water. Add vinegar. Bring to a boil and skim ff the scum and impurities as they rise to the top. Tie herbs together and add to the pot. Reduce heat, cover and simmer for at least 4 hours or as long as 24 hours. Remove
carcasses with tongs or a slotted spoon and strain the liquid into pint-sized storage containers for refrigerator or freezer. 

Chill well in the refrigerator and remove any congealed fat before transferring to the freezer for long-term storage.

Asian Style Soup
makes 4-6 servings 

1 -2 Tbsp coconut oil
1-2 Tbsp garlic, minced, grated
1-2 Tbsp ginger, minced, grated
1-2 Tbsp shallots, chopped finely
¼ cup any kind of fresh mushrooms
½ cup chopped celery
pinch red pepper flakes
½ -1 Tbsp. chili or curry paste-opt

Sauté until fragrant

4-8 oz ground meat or sausage balls
seasoned to taste with herbs and spices
Sauté until browned

Deglaze with 2-4 Tbsp mirin, dry sherry,
dry white wine, broth, water

Add 3-6 cups beef bone broth

Add 1-2 cups fresh or frozen green
peas-snow, snap or whole
Simmer until tender

¼ cup chopped scallions
¼ cup fresh basil, minced
¼ cup fresh parsley, minced

Season to taste with:
1-3 tsp toasted sesame oil
1-3 tsp South River unpasteurized miso
1-3 tsp Coconut Aminos or soy sauce
Freshly ground black pepper
1-2 Tbsp lime or lemon juice
½-1 tsp. lime or lemon zest

Coconut-Curry Chicken Soup  
makes 4-6 servings 

1-2 Tbsp butter or ghee or coconut oil
1-2 Tbsp garlic, minced, grated
1-2 Tbsp ginger, minced, grated
1-2 Tbsp shallots, chopped finely
2 teaspoons red or green curry paste(opt)
1 1/2 teaspoons curry powder
½-1 cup chopped celery
pinch red pepper flakes
chili or curry paste-opt

Sauté until fragrant

4-8 oz chicken thigh meat
Sauté until lightly browned

Deglaze with 2-4 Tbsp Marsala, dry sherry, 
Dry white wine, broth, water

Add 3-6 cups chicken bone broth

Add 1-2 cups small diced sweet potatoes 
or yams

Simmer until tender

1 bunch fresh spinach, chopped
¼ cup chopped scallions
½ cup chopped fresh cilantro
½ cup fresh parsley, minced

Season to taste with:
1-3 Tbsp raw coconut butter
1-3 Tbsp South River unpasteurized miso
1-3 Tbsp Coconut Aminos or soy sauce
Freshly ground black pepper
1-2 Tbsp lime or lemon juice
½-1 tsp. lime or lemon zest

New England Style Fish Chowder
makes 4-6 servings 

1-2 Tbsp butter 
1-2 strips chopped bacon(opt)
1-2 Tbsp shallots, chopped finely
½-1 cup chopped celery
pinch red pepper flakes(opt)

Sauté until fragrant

Deglaze with 2-4 Tbsp Mirin, dry sherry, 
dry white wine, broth, water

Add 3-4 cups fish bone broth
2 dried bay leaves
1-2 cups small diced potatoes 

Simmer until tender

½-1 cup fresh/frozen corn kernals
¼ cup chopped scallions
6 to 8 sprigs fresh thyme, leaves 
removed and chopped (1 tablespoon)
Simmer until tender

¼ cup chopped parsley

Season to taste with:
1-3 Tsp South River unpasteurized miso
1-3 Tsp Coconut Aminos
Freshly ground black pepper
1-2 Tbsp lime or lemon juice
½-1 tsp. lime or lemon zest
½-1 cup heavy cream, crème fraiche, yogurt or sour cream

Manhattan Style Fish Chowder
makes 4-6 servings 

1-2 Tbsp butter 
1-2 strips chopped bacon(opt)
1-2 Tbsp shallots, chopped finely
½-1 cup chopped celery
pinch red pepper flakes(opt)

Sauté until fragrant

Deglaze with 2-4 Tbsp Mirin, dry sherry, dry white wine, broth, water

Add 3-4 cups fish bone broth
2 dried bay leaves
1-2 cups small diced potatoes 

Simmer until tender

½-1 cup tomato sauce, or diced tomatoes
6 to 8 sprigs fresh thyme, leaves removed and chopped (1 tablespoon)
Simmer a couple of minutes

¼ cup chopped parsley
¼ cup scallions
Season to taste with:
1-3 Tsp South River unpasteurized miso
1-3 Tsp Coconut Aminos
Freshly ground black pepper
1-2 Tbsp lime or lemon juice
½-1 tsp. lime or lemon zest

Thai Red Curry Paste 
By Darlene Schmidt, About.com Guide-easy to make, and so much fresher & healthier than store-bought!
This Thai red curry paste recipe is EASY to make from scratch. You'll never buy packaged curry pastes again once you try this recipe. Homemade curry paste makes for tastier curries, and they're much healthier too! Red curry paste makes for excellent Thai curry, including curry chicken and seafood curries, beef curry, vegetarian curries, and fish curry. Or add a dollop of this paste to flavor Thai soups, noodles, or other dishes. ENJOY!
Prep Time: 20 minutes--Yield: Makes Enough for 1 Large Curry
1 shallot OR 1/4 cup purple onion, chopped
1 stalk fresh lemongrass, minced, OR 3 Tbsp. frozen prepared lemongrass (available at Asian stores) 
1-2 red chilies, OR 1/2 to 1 tsp. cayenne pepper, OR 2-3 tsp. Thai chili sauce
4 cloves garlic
1 thumb-size piece galangal OR ginger, sliced
2 Tbsp. tomato ketchup OR good-tasting tomato puree
1 tsp. ground cumin
3/4 tsp. ground coriander
1/4 tsp. ground white pepper (available in most spice aisles)
2 Tbsp. fish sauce, OR for vegetarians: 2 Tbsp. soy sauce, plus salt to taste 
1 tsp. shrimp paste, OR for vegetarians: 1 Tbsp. Thai golden mountain sauce, both available at Asian stores
1 tsp. sugar
1+1/2 to 2 Tbsp. chili powder from the spice aisle (see note below recipe*), depending on how spicy you want it 
3 Tbsp. thick coconut milk, or just enough to keep the blades turning (reserve remaining for cooking the curry)
2 Tbsp. fresh-squeezed lime juice
Optional: 1/4 tsp. cinnamon (OR add 1 cinnamon stick to your curry pot)
1.Place all ingredients in a food processor or blender and process well to create a fragrant Thai red curry paste. 
2.If too thick, add a little more coconut milk to help blend ingredients. Note that it will taste very strong at this point, but will mellow when you add your curry ingredients plus remaining coconut milk. Also, it will turn 'redder' once it is cooked, bringing out the red chili color.
3.If you prefer a curry sauce rather than a paste, add remaining coconut milk and blitz.
1.Fry the paste in a little oil to release the fragrance (1 minute). Add your choice of meat, tofu, wheat gluten, or vegetables. Add remaining can of coconut milk to create the curry sauce. (if more sauce is desired, add some good-tasting chicken/vegetable stock). Some vegetables that work well with red curry include: tomatoes, eggplant, zucchini, snow peas, cauliflower, and spinach.
2.If using fresh lemongrass, add leftover pieces of lemongrass (upper part of the stalk) to the curry as you cook it - this will add more flavor. You can also add a cinnamon stick and 2-3 whole kaffir lime leaves OR substitute 1-2 bay leaves.
3.Before serving, always do a taste test. If not salty or flavorful enough, add more fish sauce or salt. If too salty, add another squeeze of lime juice. If too sour, add a little more sugar. If too spicy, add more coconut milk. If you've run out of coconut milk, add a little yogurt, sour cream, or cream. 
4.Before serving, sprinkle over a handful of fresh coriander/cilantro and basil. ENJOY! 

To Store Paste: Place in an airtight jar or other container in the refrigerator for up to 1.5 weeks; freeze thereafter.


Linda Redfield BS DC NE CCWFN
Bachelor of Science Biochemistry
Diet Counselor-Nutrition Educator 
Certified Clinician in Whole Foods Nutrition